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مشاهیر جهان - هرمز چهارم

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هرمز چهارم

» نوع مطلب : مطالب تاریخی ،

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هرمز در سال 579م پس از پدر بر تخت سلطنت نشست و جنگ هایی که در زمان انوشیروان با بیزانس آغاز شده بود را دنبال کرد. در این جنگ ها نتیجه ی قطعی برای هیچ یک از طرفین به دست نیامد زیرا هیچ یک حاضر نبودند دست از قلعه ی دارا بکشند. در سال 588م هنگامی که سپاهیان ایران در مرزهای غربی در حال جنگ با رومیان بودند؛ خبر حمله ی ترک ها به مرزهای شرقی همه چیز را تغییر داد و هرمز در موقعیت سختی قرار گرفت. در این زمان یکی از سرداران بزرگ او به نام بهرام چوبین که رئیس خانواده ی مهان بود، با سپاهیان اندک ولی ماهر خود به استقبال ترک ها شتافت و در جنگ توانست خاقان ترک ها را به قتل برساند. در جنگ دیگری نیز پسر خاقان اسیر شد و بدین ترتیب این تهدید رفع شد و بهرام با غنائم بسیار به ایران بازگشت. هرمز از پیروزی بهرام به شدت نگران شد و چندی بعد به منظور دور کردن او از پایتخت، در سال 589م وی را برای جنگ با رومیان به لازیکا فرستاد. در لازیکا بهرام از رومیان شکست خورد ولی هرمز به جای اینکه قوای پشتیبانی برای او بفرستد، از شکست او بسیار خشنود شد و برای او دوک دان و لباس زنانه فرستاد. نظامیان از این رفتار هرمز نسبت به سردار بزرگ خود بسیار خشمگین شدند. به زودی سپاهیان که در مرزهای غربی در حال جنگ با رومیان بودند دست از جنگ کشیده و به سمت تیسفون حرکت کردند. هرمز پس از آگاهی از این موضوع، سپاهی را برای مقابله با آنان فرستاد ولی طولی نکشید که آن سپاه نیز به جمع ناراضیان پیوست. با شنیدن خبر کودتا، مردم علیه هرمز شوریدند و او مجبور به فرار از تیسفون شد تا اینکه در سال 590م به دست فردی به نام بیستام (ویستاخم) کشته شد.

در مورد هرمز باید گفت که روایات بر علیه و نیز به نفع او زیاد است. عده ای او را سفاک و در عین حال عدالت گستر خوانده اند. عده ای عقیده دارند که هرمز قصد داشته از نفوذ و قدرت روحانیون بکاهد و به تعصبات و افکار مغ ها میدان نمی داده است و به همین دلیل او را سفاک خوانده اند. در این مورد آمده است که مغ ها از هرمز خواستند تا به آزار و تعقیب مسیحیان بپردازد ولی او با حالت استهزا این پیشنهاد را رد کرد و گفت:« چنانچه تخت پادشاهی ما بر دو پایه قرار نگیرد و دو پایه ی دیگر نیز لازم است؛ همچنان حکومت ما پایدار نباشد اگر مسیحیان و پیروان مذاهب دیگر را برنجانیم و دشمن خود کنیم. دست از آزار آنها بردارید و کارهای نیک کنید تا آنها کارهای شما را دیده و به شما بگروند. »

نلدکه در این باره می نویسد:« این سخن چقدر باید باعث شرمساری مسیحیانی گردد که پیروان مذاهب دیگر را آزار و شکنجه می دادند.»



نوشته شده در : سه شنبه 14 شهریور 1391  توسط : مشاهیر جهان مشاهیر جهان.    نظرات() .

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